I am a new i phone (5s) user. I am trying to get used to the way it works, but it is a challenge! I have to say all of this was much easier using my Droid.
I had the same problem recently. I have a MacBook pro, and use the Google calendar that syncs between my phone and computer. Recently I attempted to look at a past month to verify an appointment, but it wasn't there. There were some events displayed, while others were missing.
What worked for me (I saw this on another thread in the Apple Forum, and also on another website) is to go to "Calendars" then make sure that you have "Show All Calendars" selected. If you have it selected then the text you will see at the top of the page is "Hide All Calendars". You will see checkmarks next to all of of your calendars.
This fixed all of my calendar problems.
Thanks but I had done that, Plus changed the Calendar icloud settings deleting and subseqeuntly reloading. I went in on the Macbook and changed the odd entry randomly from a few years ago, more events are now visible around that time. However its still mostly empty and I can not get any search to go back more than a year or even browse in list mode past one year - its all ok on my MACBook. I LOVED the old synch at least you knew where you were. MOST of the time. Apple seem to have totally lost the plot when it comes to software QA.