I don't have the bandwidth for iCloud integration for AppleTV, but since my local smart playlists were getting it wrong, I kind of freaked out. I fixed it, though, by moving my iTunes Library.itl from my last working clone of ML to the iTunes folder on my Mavericks installation.
I had updated only a few items since it stopped working correctly, and I had nothing to lose, as AppleTV without properly ordered playlists is basically a sleek hokey puck. I don't know why I break down and finally post the issue here after days of hand-wringing and tears of blood only to then try the one thing I hadn't thought to try before.
If anyone else is having trouble with the smart playlists not ordering properly on Apple TV, maybe this will help. Try replacing the ITL and XML files.