Hey PGAdams, I fixed this problem by going to my Gmail Settings > Labels and unchecking the "Show in IMAP" checkbox next to "All Mail." Hopefully, this will work for you, too!
The Mail Update For Mavericks actually caused this problem for me. Before the Mail Update, my Gmail behavior was weird and half-broken like a lot of other people's. After the Update, it's just now completely broken—all new mail is instantly shunted out of the inbox and into Archive. Idiotic.