iPad runs an entirely different opreating system. How it handles dictation doesn't affect how your MacBook Pro handles it. To solve at least the iPad, post here:
Is your dictation problem with Mac OS X 10.9.2 on your MacBook Pro as well? If it is, I'll request this thread be moved to the 10.9 forum where more people have experience with 10.9.
One thing to note, unless you have a Mac with DTS audio in and are using DTS audio in connector with your input, you are likely using line level audio input. That means it is not amplified in any shape form or manner.
You are probably best served by a microphone that has its own amplification of some sort.
http://www.everymac.com/ will help you identify what audio input your Mac has.