No sorry in Aperture 3 all that got turned into entries in database files. And even if you could find them it would do you no good because the only place an actual image file is located is in the Masters folder, where the files imported are kept and the Previews folder, where the previews are kept.
Also bear in mind that the Masters folder is organized by import date and time not image date and time.
As a side note you need to be very careful using an online backup service for Aperture (and iPhoto) libraries. Because of the way the # libraries there have been reports of some of the services causing libraries problems when restored.
In a managed library with Aperture 3.5, all your photos are organized by date.
They are in the Aperture Library/Masters/YYYY/MM/DD/YYMMDD-HHMMSS format for the folders (there is one folder per import group).
So if you know the date you imported the photos, you can find it that way. But you cannot find it by the name of the project.