exactly how did you "restore" the iPhoto library? the instructions are here - http://support.apple.com/kb/HT1427?viewlocale=en_US&locale=en_US
If neither TM nor Carbonite have your photos then only you know where they might be - from an iPhoto standpoint everything is in the iPhoto library - and note that few if any users have found that Carbonite can successfully backup and restore the iPhoto library do if you restore from there do not overwrite your library - you probably will need it.
but it seems that there must be another place where the photos are stored after 2008 since they are not in my iPhoto library
Not unless you put them someplace else - iphoto does not - and I'm not sure why you think that there "must" be another place - there is not