Hello pj o\'connell,
Thanks for using Apple Support Communities.
Please see below for instructions on troubleshooting this issue of not receiving the verification code:
- Make sure that you have a good cellular network connection on your phone.
- Check that your phone number is one that can receive SMS messages. You can do this by having someone send you a text message.
- Check that you have the correct phone number associated with your account:
- Devices using iOS 7.0.3 or later: Tap Settings > iCloud > Account, then tap Keychain. Check that the phone number listed under Verification Number is correct. If not, enter another phone number.
- Macs using OS X Mavericks v10.9 or later: Choose Apple () menu > System Preferences. Click iCloud, then click Account Details. Check that the phone number listed under Verification number is correct. If not, enter another phone number.
- Check Apple System Status to see if there is currently a service outage affecting iCloud Keychain.
- If you do not have access to a device that has iCloud Keychain enabled, you can contact Apple Support and verify your identity for help completing iCloud Keychain setup.
I've been having the same issue for two weeks. There is no permission thing, neither on my mother's iPod (associated with my account) nor on my Nexus 5. I did get other messages from Apple on these devices just today because I set up two-factor authentication for these devices, so it can't be that Apple has the wrong devices in mind, neither that the devices cannot receive stuff from Apple.
I should mention the iPod is a sluggish 4th gen running ios 5 or something, but that shouldn't make a difference.
Edit: I also checked the system status just to be on the safe side and it's all green. So it's not that either.