After continued research, I finally found what I think is the best article in Apple Support on this issue. It explains how to reset the iCloud Keychain. The two lessons that I learned from this were:
1. Always use your iPhone as the reference phone number so you can get the proper support from Apple (I had listed a landline)
2. Always be sure to establish your iCloud Keychain security code when you set up iCloud Keychain.
Here is the link to the Apple Support article: