Log out under the Apple in the Menu bar.
Log into Guest
Do you see the same behavior?
Have you restarted after updating to OS X 10.9.3?
Download and run the combo updater to refresh your OS X files.
OS X Mavericks 10.9.3 (Update (Combo)
Boot into the Recovery Drive by holding down Command R when restarting.
Run Repair Drive and Repair Permissions in recovery.
Is it only Preview that you are seeing this problem? If no, then it could be a hardware issue. Make a Genius appointment. Troubleshooting and analysis are a free service at the Genius Bar.
I am already running 10.9.3 so am not sure what good that would do
Running the combo updater often fixes odd issues. It's easy to do and certainly don't hurt.
MORE INFO ON WHY RUNNING COMBO FIXES ISSUES
Apple updates available from the Software Update application are incremental updates. Delta updates are also incremental updates and are available from Apple Downloads (software updates are generally smaller than delta updates). The Combo updates contain all incremental updates and will update files that could have become corrupted.
Combo updaters will install on the same version as they're applying--no need to roll back or do a clean install. So if you think you've got a borked 10.9.3 install from a regular update, just run the 10.9.3 Combo Updater on that system.
"Delta" updaters can only take you from one version to the next. For example: 10.9.1 to 10.9.2. If somehow the 10.9.2 is missing something it should have, and that something isn't changed between 10.9.1 and 10.9.2 it will still be stale after the delta update.
I went back and tried it with no luck. The dots are still showing up in menus and the previews of images are weird looking. So odd. I will have to check my warranty and see if I still have any left, I might. A really close friend of mine, and IT genius, recently passed away from a stroke a few weeks ago. I am lost with out him.
I had a hardware issue that resulted in really odd screen issues similar to yours. Luckily my computer was still under Apple Care. You can review your Apple status here:
Make a Genius appointment. Troubleshooting and analysis are a free service at the Genius Bar.
Please report back and let us know the diagnosis. It will help us to know what to suggest in the future.
One more thing to try. See Kurt Lang's instruction here to delete font cache files.
Keeping my fingers crossed that this simple fix will solve the problem and it's not hardware related.