Files in the iCloud Drive folder that haven't synced have a small cloud icon at the right end of the file Name column in that folder. I normally don't notice that as they usually sync very quickly.
The files are normally in both places but there can be an exception to that -- see my previous answer repeated below:
For the most part, any file on iCloud Drive also has a local copy on your Mac if you have Apple menu > System Preferences > iCloud > iCloud Drive turned on. You can access the local copies in Finder (Finder Go menu > iCloud Drive and you can also put the iCloud Drive folder in the Finder sidebar via Finder Preferences)
The exception would be if you also turn on Apple menu > System Preferences > iCloud > iCloud Drive - Options > Optimize Mac Storage. In that case, if your Mac is low on storage space some files might only be on iCloud. If you don't turn that option on then you would always have a local copy.