You can easily run the Time Capsule (TC) as stand alone.
Its default setting will work fine. Configure it with min amount of setup.. ignore WAN errors.
Strongly recommend you still setup short names.. <16 characters but less than 10 get extra brownie points.
No spaces and pure alphanumerics.
Passwords still should be used.. same rules as above 8-20 characters pure alphanumerics.
Question - I would like to wirelessly connect within a local network all devices to the Time Capsule for scheduled backups of each device, file sharing of Archived files/data ‘pushed‘ onto the Time Capsule, and connecting to printers
Some of this is possible and some of it is not. Apple designed iOS in a limited way to connect to either itunes on a computer or iCloud for backup. It cannot backup to a file server. It was never designed to do so. Plug the iOS stuff into a computer and do backup to iTunes.. iTunes can then hold the backup of iOS devices which are backed up to the TC via your normal Time Machine backup.
Apple did not design the TC as a file sharing device.. NAS if you like.. you can try and press it into service as such.. with a fair number of limitations. Most important of which is lack of backup. If you store / archive stuff to the TC.. it is essential you then backup those files to another drive. Time Machine CANNOT. It will not backup network source. So you must use alternative. My recommendation is Carbon Copy Cloner. Then you need to create a target.. and NOT a USB drive attached to the TC unless you want to discover the true meaning of pain. Plug the USB into the Mac Mini when you get it.. so you have a network source and network target.. and you can run the CCC from the mini.
A Time Capsule cannot be partitioned.. so that is your next problem. Time Machine or CCC will create sparsebundles to hold your files in the backup. This is a virtual disk so acts like a partition.
There are permissions issues.. you also need to be aware of. If you use Sierra and later those permissions issues are multiplied. Files stored from one computer can be difficult to access from another. (I have a work around.. if you get that far).
Storing windows files.. for as long as the Dell exists is also a bad idea. To windows the TC is NT server FAT32 drive. It is much better to backup to a USB NTFS drive on the Dell.
iOS cannot see the drive of TC to do anything. You can load an app like filebrowser to help you.
Printers are no problem as long as they support airprint.
I did not cover your data push to the TC.. I need you to define that a bit more clearly. If you wish to sync files on a computer or iOS device to the TC you will need to look for syncing software. Chronosync could be alternative both for backup and handling sync. But it is not as easy to use as CCC.