Same problem here. Solution was to repair permissions on disk.
Here is the Apple.com link which explain how to do so.
I did it from Installation Disk anyway because I'm used that way.
And it worked for me, CLX-3180 driver install that was impossible became possible and was done in a couple of minutes.
According to Canon's site the printer is not compatible with Mountain Lion as it is not isted below:
If your product is not listed below, it is not currently compatible with Mountain Lion.
You may try the 3rd party Gutenprint drivers which list the Epson Stylus T13 as supported and compatible with Mountain Lion: