Column A on your table is a Header Column, and your chart is a Category chart. Each 'category' is given equal space on the Category Axis.
You need to place the Dates in a non-header column so they may be treated as Data, not category labels.
Click on any cell in column B, then press option-left arrow to insert a new non-header column between B (now C) and A.
Click on (the new) B2 to select it, type = to open the formula editor, then click on A2, then click the green checkmark to confirm the formula.
Fill the formula down column B to the last row containing a date in column A.This will also select all cells containing the formula.
With these cells selected, Copy, then go Edit (menu) > Paste Formula Results to replace the formulas with the dates that were copied from column A.
Format the selected cells as Date & Time, with Date set to display as you want it and Time set to none.
Select column A and go Table > Delete column.
Select columns A and B, then go to the Charts button and choose x-y scatter graph.
Format as desired.